Analyze the Assignment
The first step is to analyze the assignment. Professors generally outline exactly what they are looking for in an assignment. What kind of assignment is it? Knowing this will help determine the types of information you will need. The following chart lists three common types of assignments and words commonly used in their descriptions.
After reading your assignment carefully, if you still have questions about your professor's expectations, you should ask for clarification.
Select a Topic
For many, this may be one of the more difficult parts of the assignment. Although this is only the second step in the research process, your topic selection will affect every other step.
You should choose a topic that interests you since you'll be spending a lot of time with it. Generally speaking, it's much easier to do research on topics you enjoy learning about, and know something about already. Even if your professor assigns you a topic, you can choose an aspect of that topic that interests you. The topic of "gay marriage," discussed above, can be discussed from a historical, psychological, economic, and even medical perspective.
If you're struggling with selecting a topic, ask your professor or a librarian for help.
Find Background Information
After choosing a topic, you'll begin formulating a thesis statement. If you are unfamiliar with your topic, you may need to research background information before you can develop a strong thesis statement. Background information can come in many forms. You may hear a librarian or professor refer to the sources that contain this kind of information as reference books.
How can background information help you?
- Identify key names, dates, events, issues, concepts, and terms associated with the topic
- May include bibliographies that will point you to more sources
Examples of background information sources:
- Biographical Sources
- Statistical Sources
If you're unsure which type of source will be most useful for finding background information on your topic, a reference librarian can help you.
Refine the Topic
After you conduct some background research, you should be able to refine your topic. Narrowing your topic will help give your paper precision. For example, writing a paper about gay marriage will often be too broad a topic. What about gay marriage interests you?
Here are some questions to ask that may help narrow your topic. The gay marriage topic is continued in the following examples:
Who? Are there particular people you could focus on to narrow your topic?
Example: How did Edith Windsor impact the gay marriage debate?
What? What key concepts and themes arose from your background research?
Example: What are the advantages and disadvantages for a state's government if gay marriage is legalized?
Where? Can you narrow your topic geographically?
Example: How do Nebraskans feel about legalizing gay marriage?
When? Can you narrow your topic to a particular time period or era?
Example: How have Americans' attitudes towards gay marriage changed from the 1990s to today?
Librarians can help you refine your topic. If you're feeling stuck, contact a librarian for help